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美媒:中国正寻求“量子惊奇” 或抵消美隐形技术优势
2018-08-15 01:26 参考消息
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  美媒称中国正寻求“量子惊奇”:或抵消美隐形技术优势

  参考消息网3月18日报道 美国《原子科学家公报》网站3月1日刊登题为《中国在谋求“量子惊奇”吗?》一文。作者为新美国安全中心客座研究员埃尔莎·卡尼。文章摘编如下:

  人工智能炒作已近乎登峰造极。量子技术的新一轮炒作也正在兴起,特别是量子计算。当这两轮炒作不期而遇时,究竟会怎样呢:仅仅是炒作加倍呢?还是在人工智能与量子计算汇合之处产生真正的危险,很可能成为一场潜在的军事“革命”?

  当然,两种技术都具有“新电力”的特征,而且确实有可能改变所有部门并创造新的工业革命。但是,此时此刻,人工智能和量子技术仍然处于初级阶段,其局限性将阻碍迅速实现全部潜力。与所有技术革新一样,预期人工智能和量子技术对商业和防务领域的未来影响,即使不是近乎不可能,那也是非常困难的。

  也就是说,人工智能正在得到广泛认可,是潜在的新军事革命的催化剂,可能改变目前军事力量格局。不出所料的是,包括中国和美国等主要大国都在积极推动人工智能的军事应用,在这个领域竞相创新。

  与此同时,“第二次量子革命”正在到来。物理学的首次量子革命解开了现实世界之谜,实现了基于量子力学原理的首轮技术,包括激光、半导体与磁共振成像。

  今天的革命看来很可能利用量子力学的矛盾原理创造出一系列破坏性量子技术,比如叠加(即量子系统可以同时存在于所有可能的形态)和纠缠(爱因斯坦著名的“鬼魅般的超距作用”)。利用这些独特的性能,可以在通讯、计算、雷达、计时、传感、成像、计量和导航领域的量子应用方面获取前所未有的动力、精确度、安全和灵敏度。随着这些各不相同的技术不断发展,很可能会产生一系列重要的商业和防务应用。

  显然,中国认识到量子技术具有提高国家实力的潜力,因此渴望在这个全新领域的研发方面处于领先地位。中国国家科技计划已将量子通讯和计算列为重要项目。中国军民融合的国家战略也强调这些技术。

  虽然美国是量子科学领域的开拓者,然而中国的进展和雄心已经开始挑战美国的传统领先地位。因此,必须重视中国迄今取得的进展。否则,美国可能面临这个领域出现“技术惊奇”。

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